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In spite of that, the town has become entangled with the townplanning agitation of the last few years, and it is possible that it has been prejudiced in the eyes of some people in consequence. This latter, although partly the creation of Howard himself early in the 20th century, has since consistently projected a mainly environmental version of the Garden City idea. This came to present a truncated and warped version of the original idea, instead of the more varied and balanced original view of its author.

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They have been followed in this error by many—perhaps most—planners and planning historians. Howard, ii. Spatial proposals, of course, lend themselves particularly well to visual representations and are more readily understood through plans and diagrams. To those who know them in their context, these illustrations are also often taken to represent, in an historical perspective, the seeds from which the contemporary planning institutions and doctrine grew. This tale of the origins was in turn propagated by planning educators and historians in the specialist literature, to the extent that Howard and his Garden City have now long assumed a seminal genealogical status in the commonly accepted version of the history of British planning, or indeed of contemporary planning worldwide.

What the diagrams do not and cannot convey is that the main driving force behind this endeavour towards the third kind of social space was industrial power. The first outcome of the movement was the formation of garden suburbs, in which certain features of Garden City were copied; but the most important outcome was Mr. Now, it is only necessary to study these two things to see how utterly different, to see, indeed, how greatly opposed they and the Garden City are.

It was to put an end to the extension of towns and the building of suburbs that Garden City was founded. It was to stop the great towns growing that the new town was begun. The essential idea of town-planning as it is practised in England is the antithesis of the Garden City idea. The town-planner says: We want to lay out in advance the land over which our towns are to spread; we want to schedule these green fields for the town more easily to swallow; we want to prepare for the endless growth of the huge monster.

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The Garden City says: We need to put a limit to the size of the town; we need to preserve these fields so that they shall not be destroyed; we need to re-make town life in small towns in the midst of the country. Collective municipal ownership would also replace and eradicate all forms of private property. In spite of his distrust of central government and of the modest powers he endows the latter in his plan, Spence was recycled by the Marxist socialists of the late Victorian era as one of their ancestors.

Howard, himself more of the timid liberal than the angry revolutionary sort, did indeed borrow from Spence, but very selectively, to the point in fact of intellectually betraying his source, and his readers by the same token. The idea is for the Garden City company to be able to operate on its own land and outside of public urban regulations, in order to industrialise the countryside. The borrowing from Spence was therefore very partial, in more senses than one.

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Four years later in , he retitled his work Garden Cities of To-morrow , but made no significant changes to the contents. In their book Sociable Cities, the Legacy of E.

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I have already suggested what this kind of genealogical reasoning owes to the fable-of-the-origins mode of thinking. Such a belief also perhaps marks a relative loss of perspective of certain planning specialists ensconced in their narrow disciplinary vision. Inevitably perhaps, not surprisingly at any rate, his ideas and conceptions bore the typical hallmark of an epoch colonised by the expansionary and predatory domination of industry: he was an unmitigated champion of economic growth and in particular of industrial productivism, or industrialism, and his intellectual sources bear witness to this deep-rooted and far-ranging ideological conviction.

But spatial and planning aspects aside, the other core elements of the Garden City programme are actually not about planning or mapping as such. Rather, they can be described as being about the social organisation of a new sort of place and a new kind of space. In designing that proposed organisation, Howard drew on different sources. Shortly stated, my scheme is a combination of three distinct projects which have, I think, never been united before. He explained his approach in A View in the Art of Colonization , published in He also believed that a properly proportioned population of workers, artisans, merchants and other social categories would provide an adequate basis for successful and durable colonising settlements.

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Marshall later took up the concept in his Industry and Trade: A Study of Industrial Technique and Business Organisation, and elaborated further on the implications of this configuration in terms of the relative marginal utility of different organisational choices. That Howard drew on the main figurehead of modern economic science of this time comes as no surprise. Whatever reforms be introduced into the dwellings of the London poor, it will still remain true that the whole area of London is insufficient to supply its population with fresh air and the free space that is wanted for wholesome recreation.

A remedy for the overcrowding of London will still be wanted.

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This, however, can only be true as an approximation, or even a series of connected approximations, since in reality the actual owner of the land would be the Garden City Limited Company, and the new settlement would be a municipality in a very analogical sense only, not in a legal and therefore legally binding sense. Buckingham, National Evils and Practical Remedies , But Howard was never very straightforward about this, and he only referred to the Model Town as an inspiration only for the plan of his city, and forgot to mention all the other aspects which he derived from the utopian Victoria—especially not the attraction to the private enterprise model and the central place of industry in his reform programme.

In chapter 11 of To-morrow! Not content with urging the necessity of increased production, I have shown how it can be done. While the other and equally important end of more equitable distribution is, as I have shown, easily possible, and in a manner which need cause no ill-will, strife or bitterness; is constitutional; requires no revolutionary legislation; and involves no direct attack on vested interest.

Thus may the desires of the two sections of reformers to whom I have referred be attained. The second strand of industrialism in Garden City is that its success is based on the presence and activity of the manufacturing industry within its economy. Whereas, according to S. They consider Howard as one of two neglected precursors of a current liberal-libertarian agenda in land-use planning which they seem to endorse. The little book in which they refer to Howard in those terms is significantly entitled Contractual Communities in the Self-Organising City , while the subtitle Freedom, Creativity, Subsidiarity could easily be recycled as the libertarian motto of some tax-abolition society.

Heath, by training an aeronautical engineer and inventor, became early in life a follower of the Georgist doctrine of land nationalisation through the replacement of land-ownership by a single tax on land occupation.


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But he later renounced his Georgist faith and the anti-landlord stance that was its basis. In it he replaced the anti-landlordism of the Georgists by an anti-state approach and an advocacy of local communities of landlords, free from the dual threat of crime and government, a message which he would expand on in his chief work Citadel, Market and Altar published by his own Science and Society Foundation in American libertarian school of thought. More generally Heath was part of the neo-liberal inter-war counter-culture and early post-war revival. But they do have a point: Howard did envisage the Garden City project as a private, and, if successful, profitable venture, especially—quite logically—for those who invest the most: the project is heavily dependent on industrial and commercial capital investment, and on the increase in land-value, and therefore of land rent revenues resulting from their success.

It was completed in , but there was no licence to sell alcohol in the town centre until , with its first licensed public house opening in Vicky Rawlings, from the First Garden City Heritage Museum, said townspeople "voted" a number of times for no alcohol to be sold there, based on Howard's belief that communities should choose how to operate.

She said: "It was such a utopian vision that people wanted it to be a pleasant and family-orientated place to live. Pegg said Letchworth was chosen because the film needed to be set in a "relatively new city" and revealed it also looked ideal for an "alien invasion". There are now about five pubs in the town, but as the film features 12 other buildings had to be used. North Herts district councillor Tom Brindley said: "When you look at a bank and then a pub in the film, you will think - 'that's the same place'.

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